Imodoka 150 z’amashanyarazi zimaze kwinjira mu Rwanda: Menya imikorere yazo n’ibyo leta yigomwe

Kuva mu 2018 imodoka 150 zikoresha amashanyarazi zinjiye mu Rwanda, umubare wazo wiyongera cyane guhera mu 2021 bijyanye n’uko leta yari imaze koroshya uburyo bwo kuzitunga, binyuze mu kuzikuriraho imwe mu misoro.

Imodoka 150 z’amashanyarazi zimaze kwinjira mu Rwanda: Menya imikorere yazo n’ibyo leta yigomwe

Inama y’abaminisitiri yateranye ku wa 14 Mata 2021 yemeje politiki nshya yo gutwara abantu n’ibintu mu Rwanda, n’ingamba nshya zerekeye ibinyabiziga bikoresha amashanyarazi.

Guverinoma yahise itangaza ingamba zirimo gukuriraho umusoro ku nyongeragaciro (VAT) imodoka zikoresha amashanyarazi, ibyuma bisimbura ibindi, batiri zazo n’ibikoresho bikenerwa mu kuzongeramo umuriro.

Ni uburyo bwahaye rugari abakeneye kugura imodoka zikoresha amashanyarazi gusa n’izikoresha amashanyarazi hamwe n’imbaraga za moteri isanzwe (hybrid).

Mu mihanda y’i Kigali, hakomeje kugaragara imodoka zikoresha ingufu z’amashanyarazi ziganjemo izikorwa na Sosiyete z’Abayapani cyangwa se Abanya-Koreya.

Imibare itangwa ya RRA igaragaza ko mu 2018, mu Rwanda hinjiye imodoka imwe gusa ikoresha amashanyarazi, icyo gihe yabarirwaga agaciro ka miliyoni 3.2 Frw ubaze ikiguzi cyayo, ubwishingizi n’amafaranga yo kuyigeza mu gihugu.

Icyo gihe Leta yigomwe umusoro wa 486.300 Frw harimo umusoro ku byaguzwe (excise duty) wa 412,119 Frw n’umusoro ku nyongeragaciro (VAT) wa 74,181 Frw.

Ubusanzwe umusoro ku byaguzwe (excise duty) ubarirwa hagati ya 5% na 15% bitewe n’ubwoko bwa moteri nk’uko bigaragara mu itegeko ryo mu 2019.

Mu 2019 imodoka zikoresha amashanyarazi zatangiye kuzamuka kuko hinjiye 10, zifite agaciro ka miliyoni 181.1 Frw. Amafaranga leta yigomwe mu misoro yarazamutse, aba miliyoni 26,7 Frw.

Mu 2020 imodoka zikoresha amashanyarazi zinjiye mu Rwanda zari 19, zari zifite agaciro ka miliyoni 581.1 Frw. Byahise binazamura umusoro leta yigomwe, ugera muri miliyoni 101,6 Frw.

Umwaka wa 2021 wagaragayemo izamuka rifatika ry’imodoka zikoresha amashanyarazi mu Rwanda, kuko zari 65. Igiciro cyazo cyari miliyoni 850.4 Frw, binazamura amafaranga leta yigomwe muri ya misoro agera kuri miliyoni 498,7 Frw.

Ibintu byahinduye isura kurushaho muri uyu mwaka wa 2022, kuko kugeza ku wa 27 Werurwe mu Rwanda hari hamaze kwijira imodoka 55 zikoresha amashanyarazi.

Ni imodoka zihagazeho kuko ubaze igiciro cyazo zose hamwe ari miliyoni 794.4 Frw. Imisoro zasonewe yari miliyoni 499,9 Frw.

Muri rusange, muri icyo gihe cyose ziriya modoka 150 zari zifite agaciro ka miliyari 2.4 Frw, zisonerwa imisoro ya miliyari 1.12 Frw.

Harimo miliyoni 416,8 Frw zagombaga kwinjira mu isanduku ya leta nk’imusoro ku byatumijwe mu mahanga na miliyoni 287 Frw nk’imisoro ku byaguzwe.

Harimo kandi miliyoni 416,7 Frw leta yari kwijiza mu misoro ku nyongeragaciro, ariko irayigomwa kuko impamvu yabyo iruta kure imisiro yashoboraga kwinjiza.

Ugereranyije n’imodoka zisanzwe zikoresha lisansi cyangwa mazutu, izikoresha amashanyarazi ntabwo zigoranye mu kuzitaho, ntizihumanya ikirere kandi zigira uruhare mu kugabanya ibikomoka kuri peteroli bitumizwa hanze ku kigero cya 15%.

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda isobanura ko ziramutse zikoreshejwe cyane, zatuma nibura mu 2025 ruzigama miliyari 20 Frw yagombaga kwifashishwa mu gutumiza mu mahanga ibikomoka kuri petelori.

Ibyo ukwiye kumenya kuri izi modoka zikomeje kwiyongera mu Rwanda

Mu buryo bworohera umuntu kumva, imodoka zikoresha amashanyarazi ziri mu byiciro bibiri. Hari icyiciro cy’imodoka zikoresha amashanyarazi mu buryo bwuzuye, n’ikindi cy’izikoresha amashanyarazi na lisansi cyangwa mazutu [hybrid].

Izikoresha amashanyarazi mu buryo bwuzuye ni nk’iza Volkswagen zirimo gukoreshwa mu Rwanda cyangwa se iza Mitsubishi ziherutse kugurwa na MTN Rwanda.

Bisaba ko zishyirwamo umuriro w’amashanyarazi, ku buryo izifite batiri ziringaniye, mu gihe zuzuye neza ziba zifite ubushobozi nibura bwo kugenda ibilometero 105.

Izi modoka zikoresha kilowatt imwe ku ntera iri hagati y’ibilometero bine n’umunani.

Ubusanzwe nyinshi mu modoka ziboneka mu Rwanda ni izikoresha lisansi ziganjemo iz’abantu ku giti cyabo, naho izikoresha mazutu ahanini ni izitwara imizigo cyangwa izitwara abagenzi mu buryo bwa rusange.

Ni nayo mpamvu mazutu ariyo ikoreshwa cyane mu Rwanda kurusha lisansi.

Iyo uganiriye n’abazi neza imikorere ya moteri ya lisansi n’iya mazutu, basobanura ko ku modoka nto tuzi nk’amavatiri (voiture), ibyiza ari uko ziba zikoresha lisansi.

Impamvu ni uko iyo bigeze kuri mazutu, akenshi iboneka ku isoko itaba iyunguruye ku rugero rwa nyuma ku buryo wakwizera ko mu bihe biri imbere imodoka itangiye kugera mu zabukuru, moteri yayo itazangirika burundu.

Uko imodoka zikoresha amashanyarazi na lisansi zikora

Abantu benshi bakunda gutekereza ko imodoka zose z’amashanyarazi zikenera gucomekwa ku mashanyarazi.

Ntabwo ari ko biri, kuko imodoka za hybrid zirimo ibyiciro bibiri: izicomekwa ku mashanyarazi asanzwe mu buryo tuzi nko gucaginga (charging) ku cyiciro cy’imodoka zizwi nka Plug-In Hybrid, n’izidacomekwa ahubwo batiri zazo zigakura ingufu kuri moteri y’imodoka.

Ni ukuvuga ko izo modoka zifite moteri ishobora kwakira ingufu z’amashanyarazi ariko ku rundi ruhande ikoresha na lisansi cyangwa mazutu.

Buri ruhande rushobora gukora ukwarwo urundi rutabigizemo uruhare, bivuze ko niba igice cy’ingufu z’amashanyarazi cyapfuye, icya mazutu cyangwa lisansi cyo kiba gikora bisanzwe.

Izo mpande zombi zishobora gukorana icya rimwe, zikajya zihinduranya bitewe n’ahantu umuyobozi w’ikinyabiziga ageze.

Ibyo bifasha kuzigama lisansi kuko ikoreshwa nke, bitandukanye n’ikoreshwa ku modoka isanzwe.

Kugira ngo ubyumve neza, Hybrid zikoresha ingufu za lisansi cyangwa mazutu, ziba zifite batiri ishobora guhagurutsa imodoka ikagenda bitewe n’ahantu runaka (iyo hatambitse cyangwa hamanuka).

Izi modoka zikoresha uburyo bwombi zidacagingwa zifashisha ikoranabuhanga rizwi nka "Range extender", rituma batiri igenda yiyongerera umuriro, bityo umuntu ntagire impungenge igihe ari ku rugendo rurerure.

Ibyiza byo gutunga Hybrid

Gutwara imodoka ya hybrid ni kimwe no gutwara indi modoka isanzwe ya Automatique, nta bintu byinshi umushoferi asabwa ahubwo byose birikora, atabigizemo uruhare.

Bitewe n’uburyo ikoresha (plug-in hybrid), ntabwo ukenera kujya gushyira umuriro muri batiri kuko yo ubwayo irabyikorera, kandi ntukeneye gutanga amafaranga menshi y’umurengera wishyura lisansi kuko iba yayagabanyije.

Ku Munyarwanda ushaka gutunga iyi modoka, nta misoro acibwa. Leta iherutse gushyiraho ingamba zerekeye ibinyabiziga bikoresha amashanyarazi.

Izo ngamba zikubiyemo uburyo bwo korohereza abakeneye kugura imodoka zikoresha amashanyarazi gusa n’izikoresha amashanyarazi n’imbaraga za moteri (plug-in hybrid electric & hybrid electric).

Hakuweho umusoro ku nyongeragaciro (VAT) ku modoka zikoresha amashanyarazi, ibyuma bisimbura ibindi, batiri zazo n’ibikoresho bikenerwa mu kuzongeramo umuriro.

Izo modoka n’ibikoresho byanasonewe amahoro ku bicuruzwa byinjira mu gihugu n’umusoro ku byaguzwe. Byasonewe kandi umusoro wa 5% ufatirwa ku bintu byatumijwe mu mahanga bigenewe gucuruzwa, iyo bigeze muri gasutamo.

Umuntu avuze ko imisoro yakuweho ntibiba bivuze ko n’uyigeza i Kigali uzahita uyishyira mu muhanda. Uzishyuzwa gusa amahoro ya 0,2% ajya mu ngengo y’imari y’Ubumwe bwa Afurika (AU), hanyuma wishyure n’amafaranga yo kugura pulake gusa.


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