Umutima umenetse, uruhare muri Jenoside: Mwamini Espérance yaturitse ararira (Video)

Ni kenshi wumva ubuhamya bw’abarokotse Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, rimwe na rimwe ukaba watekereza ko ibiri kuvugwa ari filime iteye ubwoba ndetse hakaba abashinyaguzi batinyuka kubihakana.

Umutima umenetse, uruhare muri Jenoside: Mwamini Espérance yaturitse ararira (Video)

Ni ukuri kw’amateka y’u Rwanda nubwo ari mabi. Nyirandegeya Mwamini Espérance, ni umwe mu bagize uruhare muri ayo mahano dore ko yanabihamijwe n’Inkiko Gacaca zikamukatira gufungwa burundu.

Mwamini na we ubwe ntabasha gusobanura iby’ayo marorerwa yijanditsemo, uburyo yaciye ukubiri n’impuhwe za kibyeyi akambarira kwica abana b’ibisekeramwanzi, ibibondo bingana n’abe batatu yari yarabyaye.

Ni ihurizo rikomeye kumva uburyo umugabo bashakanye bakabyarana abana batatu yari Umututsi, uko mu myaka ya mbere gato ya 1994 yamusigaga mu rugo n’abana akitabira inama zigamije kurimbura Abatutsi. Ni ibintu na we ubwe bimugora kubyakira iyo asubije amaso inyuma kuko iyo muganira abigusobanurira hari aho agera aho agafatwa n’ikiniga, amarira akagwa.

Uyu mugore kuri ubu ufungiye muri Gereza ya Nyarugenge, iri i Mageragere yaganiriye na IGIHE, agaruka ku buryo leta yateguye ikanashyira mu bikorwa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yabanje gutoza abakiri bato urwango, ibyaberaga kuri za bariyeri muri Jenoside n’ibindi.

IGIHE: Watubwira imibereho ya Mwamini mbere ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi?

Mwamini: Nahera gato imbere ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994. Ubundi nkomoka mu Majyaruguru mu Karere ka Musanze, kera yari Komine Kigombe, niho navukiye, niho nakuriye, nize amashuri abanza.

Nyuma ayisumbuye nyiga mu Rwunge rw’Amashuri rwa Rwaza (Groupe Scolaire Marie Reine Rwaza) ndangiriza Remera-Rukoma [Groupe Scolaire Remera-Rukoma]. Hanyuma nigishije ahantu hatandukanye.

Ubwo navuga ko mbere ya Jenoside njye nabonaga abantu twese tubanye neza kuko nashatse mu 1982, nshakana n’umugabo mbizi neza ko ari Umututsi, dukundana, turabana. Jenoside yabaye dufitanye abana batatu.

Twari mu buzima busanzwe butaryoshye cyane kuko twembi [we n’umugabo] twari abakozi ba leta ariko tudahembwa imishahara ikanganye ariko tubyumvikanamo.

Ko numva mwari mubanye neza, kandi mutari muhuje ubwoko, byaje guhinduka gute?

Ubuzima twari dufite n’aho nakoraga muri za Caisse d’Epargne [Ikigega cy’Ubwiteganyirize] ndetse n’aho nari naragiye muri Air Rwanda [Sosiyete y’ubwikorezi] mu 1985 abantu twese twarakoranaga.

Ariko noneho Inkotanyi ziteye [RPF itangiye urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu tariki 1 Ukwakira 1990], uko twabibwiwe ni byo byatangiye guteza ikibazo, bati ni Inyenzi zahunze mu 1959, barateye, barashaka gufata igihugu, barashaka […].

Urumva nk’abantu bakoraga muri leta, njyewe nakoraga muri Air Rwanda, umugabo akora muri Minagri [yari umu-Agronome] yari avuye muri Amerika, yari yaragiyeyo amazeyo umwaka n’igice.

Ikintu twabonye baje kumutwara mu rugo [….] baraza baravuga bati turashaka umugabo wawe avuye muri Amerika. Ndavuga nti"ariko nta Nyenzi iba hano. Bajya mu nzu baradusaka bareba ahantu hose, baragenda.

Ndibuka ko bageze no muri Salon [Uruganiriro], ndababwira nti ’ese ko mwazindutse cyane, ntimufite inyota? Muri firigo hari harimo inzoga nzikuramo ndabaha baranywa barangije baragenda.

Bamaze kugenda, habayeho kugira ngo njye n’umugabo tubisobanukirwe, ndamubaza nti hari amakuru ubifiteho? Yari yaje kuri 30 Kanama 1990, urabizi ko igitero cya mbere cyinjiye tariki 1 Ukwakira. Ni uko umugabo nta makuru menshi yari abifiteho nawe yari abifashe gutyo.

Ariko baje gusaka aribwo bafunze Ibyitso we ntibamufunzemo.

Tuvuye aho mu rugo se, nyuma y’uko Inkotanyi zitangije urugamba, umwuka wari umeze gute mu kazi?

Buriya ibintu byose bigendana n’imyumvire gake gake. Urumva bahize Ibyitso, bari guhiga Abatutsi ngo bashaka kubafunga, nibo bashyigikiye Inkotanyi, nibo bagarutse, ni abana b’abahunze.

Ubwo ku kazi twirirwa tubivuga […] hanyuma rero ubwo byarakomeye. Ariko aho nari ntuye ku Kivugiza twaje kuhafungura iduka rito ririmo n’amakaziye nk’angahe ya byeri nimugoroba abantu bava ku kazi bakahanyura bagafata za nzoga.

Muri ako gace ku Kivugiza twari duturanye n’umuntu witwa Karera François wari Burugumesitiri wa Nyarugenge [muri Jenoside yaje kuba Su-Perefe w’Umujyi wa Kigali], ariko Kivugiza ikaba izwiho kuba agace kari gatuwemo n’Abatutsi benshi.

Iby’urugamba ntabwo byavugwagaho rumwe; uruhande rwa Karera agasobanura ko Inyenzi zateye zishaka gufata ubutegetsi, zishaka kwihorera n’ibindi. Wajya mu bandi bantu bakavuga bati ni abantu bashaka gutaha mu gihugu cyabo.

Byaje kugera ahantu bikaze, urugamba rukomeye abantu bari kurwana bakagenda, hari musaza wanjye wakoraga muri Minitrape, akajyana abasirikare, akabashyira ibiribwa n’ibikoresho iyo ku rugamba yaza akaza aho muri ako kabari.

Icyabaye rero ni uko ku Kivugiza twacitsemo ibice. Hari abaturanyi bacu bari barafunzwe mu byitso, ubwo nyuma y’amezi atandatu barabafunguye ariko babafungura batakizewe.

Ku bijyanye n’amashyaka, wowe n’umugabo wawe mwabyitwayemo mute?

Ku giti cyanjye nari ndi muri MRND na mbere kuko ryari ishyaka rya rusange. Ayo macakubiri n’ibyo byose bitangiye njyewe nagumye muri MRND. Haje amashyaka menshi, umugabo wanjye we yigira muri PSD kubera ko yakurikiranaga agasanga MRND irimo gutoteza abantu.

Ndamubwira nti njyewe MRND niyo nzi, ibyo by’amashyaka y’inzaduka ntabwo mbizi nzigumira aha, numvaga nta kintu bizantwara ariko […] urumva iyo mu rugo hajemo imyumvire ya politiki itandukanye biba bitangiye kubyara ikibazo.

Ubwo rero amashyaka menshi aje, uwo mugabo Karera yazanye igitabo cyo kwandikamo abarwanashyaka ba MRND muri iryo duka nacuruzagamo kuko hanyweraga abantu benshi bari ku ruhande rwa Leta, bashyigikiye MRND.

Ayo mashyaka [….] MRND hahita hajyaho atavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi ya PL na za PSD. Bihita bishushanya ngo umuntu ugiye mu barwanya Leta ni uko ashyigikiye Inkotanyi. Ugumye kuri Leta ubwo ntabwo ashyigikiye Inkotanyi. Urwo ruhande rero nirwo nagiyemo kuva mu 1990, umugabo wanjye aguma muri PSD. Urumva nawe umuntu atagiye kurondogora umwe yagiye muri uru ruhande undi ajya mu rundi.

Bavuga ‘Mitingi’ za MRND nkajyayo, bavuga igikorwa cyose MRND iri gutegura nkajyayo, inama z’abagore bari muri MRND nkajyayo. No ku kazi niko byari bimeze kuko urumva abenshi bari bari ku ruhande rwa Leta kuko abantu niko tumeze aho ubona hari amaramukiro niho ukunda kujya cyane kuruta ahandi.

Ubwo se muri izo ‘Mitingi’ ni ibiki mwabaga mufite ku murongo w’ibyigwa?

Ntabwo nakubwira ngo [….] iyo twajyaga muri ‘Mitingi’ byabaga ari ukugenda tukumva ibiganiro abo bayobozi bakaza bakigisha twese tukaririmba, tugomba kurwanya Inkotanyi, tugomba kurwanya Inyenzi, bati ‘yeee muzitsembatsembe [Inkotanyi] duti yego’.

Ukabyina, ukabyina ugafana ariko habaga hari umutwe ufite ibyo wateguye.

Muri njyewe icyarimo ni ukuvuga ngo ndebe ko muri iyo nzira ndimo nakwifashiriza umuryango kuko byabaga bikomeye, twajya muri ‘Mitingi’ nkumva abantu bose biyemeje ko bagomba kurwanya Abatutsi.

Icyo navuga byambyariye kitari cyiza ni uko abo Batutsi twari duturanye ku Kivugiza twarabanaga dufatanye turi kumwe ariko bamaze kubona ngiye muri urwo ruhande, icyizere bakinkuyeho.

Ntabwo bashoboraga kunyisanzuraho, yewe n’umugabo wanjye hari amakuru menshi atashoboraga kumpa kubera ko yabonaga ndi mu ruhande rw’abantu atari kumwe nabo, barimo kumutoteza ku kazi, bamwimurira ahandi, bamuvana i Kigali bamujyana za Butare n’ibindi.

Ibyo byose ntabwo nabonaga uburemere bwabyo cyangwa icyo bitegura, numvaga ari kumwe Leta ivuga iti Abatutsi baduteye, na bene wabo ntabwo tukibafashe neza.

Mwamini asobanura ibyaberaga kuri za bariyeri ku Kivugiza
Twihutse tukagera mu bihe bya Jenoside se, wari kumwe n’umugabo n’abana bawe?

Reka wenda nze ngere mu 1993, bashyizeho RTLM, iba ari radio twese dushyigikiye nk’abari muri MRND turi mu mashyaka menshi, ya mashyaka yose aje gufatanya na MRND arimo za CDR n’andi menshi.

Jenoside itangiye indege yahanutse hari mu biruhuko bya Pasika nk’iki gihe. Ndibuka ko ejo bundi nari ndimo mbwira abantu tubana hariya nti aya matariki yo muri uyu mwaka ari kugenda asa n’ayo mu 1994 uko byari bimeze. Indege ya Habyarimana yahanutse ku wa Gatatu tariki 6, Jenoside itangira ari itariki 7 Mata ari ku wa Kane.

Ubwo rero Jenoside nyine indege irahanutse, icyitiriro, abayihanuye ni Abatutsi, RTLM yabivuze saa mbiri

Umugabo wanjye ntiyari ahari, yari yajyanye abana kumusura aho yabaga i Butare, abana ariyo bari njyewe ndi mu rugo nk’umuntu wagombaga kujya ku kazi muri Air Rwanda ku Kibuga cy’Indege.

Indege imaze guhanuka hakurikiyeho iki?

Tariki 6 Mata mu gitondo nari nagiye ku kazi bisanzwe, mvayo nka saa saba, perezida yari yagiye, narabimenyaga kubera ko nakoraga muri serivisi itanga ‘Carburant’.

Ubwo rero indege bamaze kuyihanura ari nijoro […] nari ngiye ahantu ku mudamu w’inshuti yanjye wari warapfushije umwana. Umukobwa we yari yarasiwe ku Gisenyi arashwe n’abantu bavuze ngo ni Inyenzi ngo asa n’Abatutsi, baramurasa.

Tugiye muri icyo kiriyo nibwo ibyo byabaye [Indege yahanuwe], niho naraye ariko mu rukerera namanutse njya mu rugo nsanga bariyeri zuzuye imihanda yose n’iryo joro amabombe yari yaraye agwa, ukumva gerenade biraturitse, ntawasinziriye.

Ubwo nta kindi, bariyeri iwacu yari yahageze ahantu mu muhanda aho bita kwa Jérôme, hirya kwa Karera François, ahantu hose hari hari bariyeri.

Ubwo nawe wahise ujya kuri bariyeri icyo gihe?

Ntabwo ngiye kukubeshya kuva uwo munsi nk’umuntu w’umugore wari uri mu rugo wenyine nahuye n’akaga kenshi cyane. Icya mbere baje kumbaza umugabo aho ari, ntabwo bazi ko yagiye akajyana abana mu biruhuko.

Ndavuga nti yagiye, abana nabo yabajyanye. Bivuze iki? bivuze ko yantaye, yagiye akajyana abana be akihungira, bati ubwo yari abizi.

Ubwo rero mpabwa amabwiriza n’uwo Karera n’uwari Responsable, bati umugore wari utunzwe n’Umututsi, kugira ngo utazibeshya ukagira uwo uhisha ujye uza kuri bariyeri buri mu gitondo.

Nazindukaga mu gitondo cya kare nkajya kuri bariyeri. Kuri iyo bariyeri rero hakaza abantu, tukabaza muvuye he? Nanjye ngafata amarangamuntu nkareba mfatanyije n’izindi Nterahamwe zari aho kuri bariyeri.

Baza kuza gutanga imbunda, Responsable wacu bamuha imbunda […] ariko Karera aza kuhanyura [hari ku wa Gatandatu cyangwa ku Cyumweru] aravuga ngo mube muzi ko hano ku Kivugiza kubera ko Abatutsi aribo benshi, mufite ibibazo ariko turaboherereza abo kubatabara.

Nk’iyo mbitekereje hari igihe mvuga nti kuki numviye ibyo avuga? Ariko nanone nkavuga nti ese nari kutemera ibyo avuga nshingiye kuki ko nta yandi makuru arenze ayo nari mfite ari kuduha we nk’umuyobozi?

Cyane ko aho twigishirijwe cyane muri gereza namenye ibintu byinshi uko Jenoside yateguwe nibuka mu mashuri abanza uko batwigishaga ngo Umututsi ameze gutya na gutya [..].

Byose ndabikurura ndavuga nti ‘yewe ya Jenoside yarateguwe’ nabigizemo uruhare gutya na gutya reka mbyakire, ubundi mbyicuze, nsabe imbabazi, ninzihabwa nzihabwe ntintanazihabwa nabwo mbyakire.

Muri icyo gihe wowe wakoraga iki kuri za bariyeri?

Ubwo nari ndi aho kuri bariyeri, ndi kureba mu marangamuntu, batanze imbunda [baziha ababaga bari kuri za bariyeri], turi aho, abantu barishwe.

Noneho ku giti cyanjye baza kuza gushaka abantu, umugabo wakoraga muri Rwandatel w’umuturanyi wanjye, Interahamwe ziraza ziti ‘Mwamini’ uratubwira aho Alex ari. Alex akaba yari avuye aho ari kumbaza ati wowe uri kugendagenda ruguru aho bimeze bite?

Noneho yumvise amafirimbi kuko bavuzaga amafirimbi, arasimbuka aho asimbukiye nanjye baturuka hirya, uwitwa Rukabukira araza ati ‘Alex mwari muhagararanye arihe? Ngo tubwire, ndavuga nti namubonye ariko yaciye aha. Ni ukuvuga ngo nerekanye inzira.

Banshyize imbere, uko ndi imbere tukigera imbere n’amafirimbi, reba nawe icyo gitero ubwo ninjye ukiyoboye. Twageze ahantu kumbe muri ibyo bihuru hihishemo abandi bantu, sinari nziko barimo.

Ubwo twakomeje turi gushaka Alex tugera mu ngo nyinshi z’abaturanyi, abo twahasanze benshi icyo gitero nari nyoboye cyica abo bantu […]. Ubwo nyine bamaraga kubabona bakabashorera bakabashyira kuri izo bariyeri bakabica. Abo baturanyi banjye baricwa.

Habaga ari ku manywa, ntabwo wavuga ngo ibyabaye nta muntu wabibonye.

Ko bivugwa ko wari ufite imbunda n’imyenda ya gisirikare byo waje kubibona gute?

Nabanje kujya muri Stade, hari abasirikare bari Mont Kigali njya gushakayo intwaro n’abantu [amaboko] kugira ngo nshobore kugera aho abo mu muryango wanjye bari bari.

Abampaga amakuru bambwiraga ko hari umukobwa uri mu cyobo utapfuye [….] byabaye ngombwa ndagenda nshaka abantu turamanuka twambaye imyenda ya gisirikare n’imbunda tuje gukanga abo kuri bariyeri [iyari iri ahitwa Rwarutabura].

Nahitiye aho kuri Bariyeri, njyayo mbagurira inzoga kugira ngo abo twazanye babashe kujya kurokora wa mukobwa. Mu gihe naguraga inzoga ndi kuri iyo bariyeri, wa muvandimwe w’Umututsi yarahanyuze arambona, ati "uri umwicanyi kimwe n’abandi".

Nari mfite imbunda, nambaye n’iyo myenda ya gisirikare ngenda nambaye nk’umuntu uri ku rugamba kimwe n’abandi. Iyo mbunda sinari nzi kuyikoresha, nta muntu nayicishije.

Ubwo Interahamwe nta kandi kazi twakoraga usibye kwirirwa tuvuza induru, tuvumbura abantu, twica […] ni uko mba njandamye muri Jenoside.

Uyu munsi hari abavuga ko Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi itabaye; wemeranya nabo?

Ikindi navuga ni uko abantu bavuga ngo ntabwo Jenoside yabaye, yarateguwe iraba, njyewe ndakubwiza ukuri ngo n’icyatumye mfata inzira yo kubisobanura, ngomba kuvuga ibyabaye, uruhare rwanjye ntabwo narwita ruto kimwe n’uko nta muntu wagize uruhare muri Jenoside wakwita ruto.

Jenoside yarabaye, ibintu byo gukomeza gukwiza mu mahanga ngo ntabwo yabaye, ngo habaye Jenoside ebyiri; ntabwo kuri bariyeri twari twarahawe amabwiriza yo kureba Abahutu n’Abatutsi.

Abatutsi nibo bashakishwaga, kugeza n’ubwo umugabo yica umugore cyangwa umugore [….] njyewe naravuze nti reka nshime Imana ko bibaye umugabo wanjye adahari. Nashoboraga gutegekwa no kuvuga bati genda utwereke aho umugabo wawe yihishe n’abana bawe b’Abatutsi tubice.

Nari kubabuza se kubica ? Cyangwa se nanjye bakampa intwaro bati biyicire kuko hari abo byabayeho. Urumva ntabwo ari Jenoside ebyiri kuko uwashakishwaga ni Umututsi.

Jenoside yarabaye twayigizemo uruhare, icyo dukwiye gukora ni ugusaba imbabazi, ntacyo twakora ngo ibyabaye bigaruke byongere bibe bishya, uwishwe agaruke.

Imana itubabarire n’Abanyarwanda batubabarire, n’Isi yose ijye itubabarira ariko noneho si n’igihe cyo kuba wavuga ko nta Jenoside yabaye, byaba ari ugushinyagura birenze urugero.

Ubundi mu gihe cyo kwibuka abazize Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ku nshuro ya 28, abo twahekuye, abo twakoreye Jenoside bakiriho, njya mbabona bavuga kuri televiziyo bati twariyubatse kandi natwe n’ubwo twakoze ibyaha Leta yatubereye umubyeyi kudufunga bakatugaburira, bakadufasha, urarwara bakakuvuza ntabwo ari ukuduhembera ibyo twakoze ahubwo ni ukuturusha ubumuntu.

Mwamini ahamya ko Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yateguwe, akamagana abayihakana n'abayipfobya